Assessment of Influence and Threshold Ratios of Titanium Dioxide and Calcium Carbonate as Pigments on the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Emulsion Paint

1Raheem A. A., 2Olowu, O. A., 3Aladeloba, A. E., 4Hungbo, A. A., 5Akinsanya, A. Y.

1Department of Civil Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

2,3,4 Building Technology Department, School of Environmental Studies, Yaba College of Technology, Lagos, Nigeria.

5 Building Technology Department, School of Environmental Studies, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria.
*Corresponding Author Email:; +2348038198032

DOI: 10.36108/laujoces/9102/20(0290)


Titanium dioxide (TiO2) also known as Titanium White, is an inorganic, synthetic pigment used in paint to protect the substrate from harmful effects of ultraviolet light when lead pigments are regarded as toxic. However, its use is being limited since it causes flu-like symptoms, respiratory problem and skin irritation. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is a chemical commonly used as an extender pigment in cement to provide bulkiness at relatively low cost. Because of the problem associated with TiO2, it is of importance to regulate and optimize the use of TiO2 relative to CaCO3 and their influence on the physico-mechanical properties of emulsion paints. Nine paint specimens were formulated using 0 – 80 grams per litre of TiO2 and 120 – 200 grams of CaCO3, respectively at 10 gram interval. The following tests were performed on them: specific gravity, viscosity, pH, surface drying time, hard drying time, wash-ability/adhesion and opacity tests, in accordance to Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS) 278: 1990. The result shows that all samples met specifications of 10 poise maximum, 5%, 7.5-9.0, 20 minutes, 2 hours, and 201 minimum, for viscosity, specific gravity, pH, surface drying time, hard drying time and wash-ability/adhesion properties, respectively. However, six sample specimens only met the requirement of NIS 278:1990 of 2coats for good opacity. In conclusion, TiO2 has no negative effect on the other physio-mechanical properties except the opacity of the paint and so specimens 7, 8 and 9, and ratio 30:170 is considered the threshold values for the paint production.

Keywords: Threshold ratio, Physio-Mechanical Properties, Pigment, Emulsion Paint.

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