Preliminary Health Risk Assessment in Relation to Some Trace Elements in Ogunpa River, South-Western Nigeria
1Omotoso, O. A.; 2Ojo, O. J.; 3Ige, O. O.; 4Olaleye, I. M.; 5Adewoye, O. A. and 6Olelewe, M. C.
1,2,3,4,5,6Department of Geology and Mineral Sciences; University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria;
2Department of Geology, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria
5Department of Earth Science; Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Corresponding Author E-mail: Omotoso.firstname.lastname@example.org
Ogunpa River receives municipal and industrial waste discharge from its catchments and these have depleted the quality of the water. Hence, this research examines the preliminary environmental impacts and health implications of some trace elements in the water using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) laboratory technique. Average values of Al, Ba, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb are above the recommended limits of WHO. The CF showed that the trace elements varied from considerable contamination factor to very high contamination factor and the degree of contamination varied from 1023 to 11640. The hazard quotient computed for the adults is generally less than unity except Pb that has average value of 1.27. In children, the computed hazard quotient on the average ranges from 0.000572 to 4.04. Al, As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd have their average values less than unity respectively, while Fe, Mn and Pb has their average values greater than one. The Hazard Index (HI) in adults and children are greater than one. Carcinogenic risk assessment was computed for Cr, Pb and Cd which was greater than 10-6 in children and adult. Only Cd in adult was less than the prescribed limit of 10-6. Effort should be made to checkmate indiscriminate dumping of refuse and sewages into the water body as these could serve as pollutants to other adjourning rivers and main water bodies. In conclusion, the water is not fit for domestic, agricultural and probably industrial uses because of its health implications on consumption.
Keywords: Ogunpa river, contamination factor, degree of contamination, Hazard quotient, hazard index, carcinogenic health risk.