Elemental Comparison of Bones of Red Sokoto (Capra Hiracus) and West African Dwarf (Capra Aeagurus) Goats for Production of Glazes
1Kalilu, R. O. R. and 2*AKINDE, T. E.
1,2Department of Fine and Applied Arts, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Elemental characterization of glaze materials has not been of scholarly concern, especially in Nigeria where studies have also excluded animal by-products for glaze derivation and glaze modeling. This study therefore elementally examined ashes of bones of Capra hiracus (Red Sokoto Goats) and Capra aeagurus (West African Dwarf Goats) and produced glazes with them with a view to providing scientific modeling of the glazes. Raw bone samples of each animal were separately collected processed into ashes and analysed using particle induce X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering spectroscopic (RBS) techniques. Thirteen elements Magnesium, Aluminum, Silicon, Cholrine, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Titanium, Copper, Zinc, Lead and Iron (Mg, Al, Si, Cl, P, K, Ca, Ti, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe) were determined and based on which the ashes of each sample with adobe clay, whiting, borax and soda ash were successfully modeled into five glaze batches, applied on bisque wares and fired up to 1150 0C in a down-draught kiln. Undiluted ash samples gave white and off-white colours. Their mixtures with other materials gave sienna and brown-ochre colours with opaque effect. In other words, the final glaze effects of the ashes were opaque. Visually, WAD combination was most successful, though with pocket of crazing, crawling and peeling off hosts. Conclusively, it is the hope of this article, that its finding will provoke further studies on comparative examination of animal by-products for glaze formulation, theorization and practical application.
Keywords:: Glazing, Elemental characterization, Glaze formulation, Nigeria, Animal by-products